Course Aims
To provide the basics on psalmody (Mass and Office) and give the necessary tools to:
1. Sing any psalm/great Canticle within the Liturgy of Hours with its appropriate tone and differentia
2. Search for and pair a versicle with an antiphon of Communio
3. Understand the main features of ornate psalmody

Learning framework
Materials from the Antiphonale Monasticum, the Liber Usualis and the manuscript of Saint Gall 381 will be explored, alongside with chants for the Mass and Office from various sources.

The students will be introduced to the first steps in the study of psalmody with the aid of schematic slides/pdfs, supporting pictures, listening sessions on specific features and examples described in class alongside with suggested readings.

Topics and exercise sessions
Our proposed learning path will follow these steps:

1. Basics on modes and tones:
1. The pentatonic scale and the notion of pien
2. The structure of archaic modes (C, D, E) and their presence in the repertory
3. The evolution of modes
4. The Octoechos: modes and psalmodic tones (+ exercise
5. An interesting exception: the Tonus Peregrinus

2. Simple psalmody for the Office
1. The eight psalmodic tones relative to the Octoechos: structure and main features
2. Intonation and re-intonation: the differentiae
3. How to sing a psalm with any given psalmodic tone and differentia: a practical guide
4. An example: Psalm 51 (Miserere)
5. Exercise sheet and solutions

3. Semi-ornate psalmody for the Office
1. The great Canticles: Benedictus, Magnificat, Nunc Dimittis
2. Structure and construction of their versicles in any given psalmodic tone
3. Examples

4. Semi-ornate psalmody for the Mass
1. The cursus planus in literature
2. Structure and features of the eight semi-ornate psalmodic tones for the Mass
3. The Versicularium: an introduction to the manuscript of Saint Gall 381
4. Examples

5. Ornate psalmody
1. The Canticles of the Easter Vigil
2. The graduals in IIA
3. Some office responsories and other examples

6. Extra: the Tonaries
7. Extra: the structure of Vespers

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